Apple (Malus domestica)
Apples are sustainable in most areas of Uzbekistan. Most of the red varieties usually require cooler temperatures to achieve proper coloration due to fog and dew.
The options for apples are endless as there are hundreds of varieties and strains within those varieties to provide countless options according to what is needed. For example, spur-type apple varieties are not the best for dwarfing rootstocks but rather for seedling rootstock. Other varieties are more adaptable to the cold. There are specific rootstocks that deal with pest resistance and dwarfing if desired. The time required for maturation also varies depending on the rootstock and can range from 70 to 180 days.
Most apple varieties cannot produce fruit on their own because they have sterile pollen so they must be cross-pollinated with another variety that has good pollen production and has the same blooming time.
Requirements for Soil
Although apple trees are versatile and can grow in many different kinds of soil, in order to have good quality fruit it is best to plant apple trees in fertile sandy soil or loamy soil.
Because wet soil may increase the possibility of crown rot (Phytophthoracactorum) and prevent good soil ventilation, well-drained soil is best for apple trees. Apple tree roots are usually quite shallowly rooted so soil that is too wet may restrict growth and development. This can cause the tree to be weakly anchored by its roots and for less area for possible nutrient extraction.
Apple trees thrive better in neutral or slightly acidic soil, at a pH level between 5.8 and 7.0. The pH scale is used to measure acidity or alkalinity and should be used when finding the right soil for any crop. If soil is too acidic or basic it can hinder fruit and tree development and result in nutrient tie-up or toxicity. The pH of the soil can be adjusted by using lime before planting.
Requirements for Water
In order to ensure high yields and prevent the apples from splitting, the moisture of the soil in which the trees are planted must be uniform throughout the different fruit sets and their development. Apple trees require good irrigation in order to produce high quality fruit.
In dry years where there have been good summer rainfalls, it is good to have at least 5 megalitres of water per hectare of orchard to maintain quality fruit production.
Water salinity needs to be monitored because apples are sensitive to irrigation water salinity. It should be kept below an electrical conductivity of 900 microSiemens/centimetre((µS/cm).
Yearly pruning and fertilizing are two ways to make sure of high quality fruit production from apple trees. Fertilized apple trees can spend more nutrients on fruit production, producing fruit that has less imperfections and more flavor. Two nutrients that apple trees use the most are potassium and calcium; therefore they should be applied yearly. Other nutrients should only be applied when necessary. Please visit Fertilizer Management section of the web page for more information.
Apple tree care
Winter dormant season
Spring bloom season
Summer growing season
Fall harvest season