Plum and Prune (Japanese: Prunus salicina; European: Prunus domestica)
Plum and prune trees are one of the best-adapted fruit tree species for almost anywhere in Uzbekistan. They are easy to grow. Available rootstocks are very tolerant of wet winter soils; they bloom late enough to avoid most spring frosts; and they have few pest problems.
Plum trees get relatively large spacing. Most plums, but not all, require cross-pollination to set adequate crops; plan to plant two different varieties.
There are two different kinds of plums: Japanese, Prunus salicina, and European, Prunus domestica. European types are either very sweet fresh plums or prunes used for drying. Most Japanese plums bloom earlier and mature earlier. Both types of plums require about 140–170 days to mature the crop. Most Japanese plums bloom earlier and mature earlier. They typically require less chilling than European plums.
Plums grow best in moderately fine-textured loam and sandy loam soil. These conditions produce the healthiest trees and most substantial fruit crops. But they can in reality grow in a wide range of soil types and textures ranging from sand to clay. Avoid soil with high clay content if possible however, because this type of soil can present drainage issues.
The pH of soil measures its acidity or alkalinity, which is an important consideration for growing any crop. Plum trees grow best in acidic to neutral soil, with a pH between 5.0 and 6.5, and seldom perform well in alkaline soil. If you have alkaline soil, you can lower the pH by incorporating gypsum or a fertilizer containing ammonium sulfate before planting. If you are unsure of your soil's pH, you can have your soil tested at the soil lab.
Plum trees, like many fruit trees, do not do well in soil that is continually wet. Infrequent watering gives the soil time to dry out between irrigation applications, which allows the plum tree's roots to breathe and avoids problems related to waterlogged soil. To plant plum trees the planned orchard site should be studied after the rain, if there are waterlogged areas are found, plum trees should not be planted in these areas. Deep watering helps encourage the plum tree to extend its roots deeper into the soil, thus making the tree more drought-resistant while also minimizing the heat risks associated with shallow roots and the rapidly fluctuating temperature of the soil surface. Plum trees can tolerate water stress, but if they receive too much water stress it will negatively affect its yield. Regardless of the variety, all plum trees respond well to twice-a-week watering applications.
Moderately fertile soil is generally sufficient for growing plum trees, and adding fertilizer may not be necessary unless your soil is deficient. As with pH, a soil test will reveal the nutrient content of your soil and make recommendations for fertilizer. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for plum trees, and many commercial fruit growers apply nitrogen fertilizer at a rate of 70-90 kg (pure) per hectare before planting. Plum trees also remove potassium and zinc from the soil, which may create a need for supplemental fertilization after a few years.